Dr. Mark Feldhausen

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Title The Effects of Computer Review Assistance Modules (Cram) on Student Achievement in United States History (Computer Assisted Instruction (Cai), Social Studies)
Author Feldhausen, Mark Wayne
School The University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Degree PhD
Date 1985
Pages 141
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Abstract This study investigated the effectiveness of Computer Review Assistance Modules (CRAM) on student achievement in United States history in secondary schools. Computer Review Assistance Modules are examples of adjunct computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs written for use on microcomputers. The researcher designed the modules with a pascal based authoring system--Apple SuperPilot to provide students with an additional, supplemental method of study for unit exams. The review of the literature included an analysis of the current status of microcomputers in education with special emphasis upon their use in social studies education. The work of behaviorist and cognitive psychologists in reference to CAI was examined. Finally, a review of the effectiveness of CAI through the use of box-score analyses was conducted. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of CRAM. Ten intact classrooms of secondary United States history students were randomly assigned to control and treatment groups. The treatment group (N = 103) used CRAM in preparation for the final unit exam. The control group (N = 113) used a traditional study guide to prepare. An evaluation survey was administered to the treatment group after the posttest. Available achievement composite scores were used to establish three achievement levels used as blocking variables in the analysis of variance. The results of the experiment indicate that there was no statistically significant difference, at any achievement level, in unit test performance between those that used CRAM and those that did not. Attitudinal information indicated that the majority of students enjoyed the use of CRAM and believed it helped them prepare for the unit exam. The low and high achievement levels were more positive toward CRAM than was the medium achievement level. The study concluded with recommendations that further study of CAI such as CRAM and its use in social studies, the motivational impact of CAI, the CRAM paradigm, and the types of questions used in CRAM be pursued.
 
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